Abstracts are presented below for clinical studies on Prickly Chaff Flower.
Botanical Name: Achyranthes Aspera
Ayurvedic Name: Aparmarga
Common Name: Prickly Chaff Flower
1: Afr Health Sci. 2006 Jun;6(2):108-12.
Effect of achyranthes aspera L. on fetal abortion, uterine and pituitary
weights, serum lipids and hormones.
Shibeshi W, Makonnen E, Zerihun L, Debella A.
1. Department of Biomedical Sciences Faculty of veterinary Medicine Addis Ababa
University P. O. Box 34, Debrezeit, Ethiopia.
Back ground: The practice of traditional medicine for the control of fertility
in rural Ethiopia is based on folk use of numerous antifertility herbs and
Achyranthes aspera is one of these used for this purpose. Many plants are known
to possess anti-fertility effect through their action on
hypothlamo-pituitary-gonadal axis or direct hormonal effects on reproductive
organs resulting in inhibition of ovarian steroidogenesis. Objectives: The
present study focused to investigate the effect of methanolic leaves extract of
Achyranthes aspera L. on some indicators for anti-fertility activities such as
abortifacient, estrogenesity, pituitary weight, and ovarian hormone level and
lipids profile in female rats, in attempt to validate the traditional claim.
Methods: The abortifacient effect of the methanolic extract of the leaves of
Achyranthes aspera was determined by counting the dead fetuses in vivo. Effect
on estrogenesity was assessed by taking the ratio of the uterine weight to body
weight. The ratio of the pituitary weight to body weight was also calculated.
The effect of the extract on the level of ovarian hormones and lipid profile was
evaluated using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Results: The extract
showed significant (p<0.05) abortifacient activity and increased pituitary and
uterine wet weights in ovarectimized rats. The extract, however, did not
significantly influence serum concentration of the ovarian hormones and various
lipids except lowering HDL at doses tested. Conclusion: The methanolic leaves
extract of Achyranthes aspera possesses anti-fertility activity, which might be
exploited to prevent unwanted pregnancy and control the ever-increasing
PMID: 16916302 [PubMed - in process]
2: J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Sep 19;107(2):179-81. Epub 2006 Mar 22.
Post-coital antifertility activity of Achyranthes aspera Linn. root.
Vasudeva N, Sharma SK.
Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry Division, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Guru Jambheshwar University, Hisar 125001, India.
Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Amaranthaceae) is an abundant indigenous herb in
India. It is traditionally being used as an abortifacient. The ethanol extract
of the root was screened for antifertility activity in proven fertile female
albino rats at 200 mg/kg body weight and given orally on days 1-7 of pregnancy.
The ethanol extract exhibited 83.3% anti-implantation activity when given orally
at 200 mg/kg body weight. The rats, which continued their pregnancy, did not
deliver any litters after their full term. Hence the combined antifertility
(anti-implantation and abortifacient) activity of ethanol extract was 100%. The
results suggest that the ethanol extract possess both anti-implantation and
abortifacient activity. The ethanol extract also exhibited estrogenic activity
tested in immature ovariectomised female albino rats. Histological studies were
carried out to confirm this.
PMID: 16725289 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
3: Int Immunopharmacol. 2006 May;6(5):782-90. Epub 2005 Dec 20.
Achyranthes aspera stimulates the immunity and enhances the antigen clearance in
Chakrabarti R, Vasudeva RY.
Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi--110 007, India.
Achyranthes aspera, an Indian medicinal plant (family: Amaranthaceae) was
incorporated in artificial fish diet, and fed to catla Catla catla. After 4
weeks of feeding, fish were immunized with bovine serum albumin (BSA), spleen
and blood were sampled on weekly intervals for four times after immunization.
Antigen-specific antibody level in serum was determined by ELISA. Antigen
clearance was determined in spleen by immuno-electron microscopy. Achyranthes
has significantly (P<0.05) enhanced the BSA-specific antibody titers than the
untreated control group throughout the study period. The efficiency of antigen
clearance was also enhanced in C. catla treated with Achyranthes.
PMID: 16546709 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
4: Contraception. 2006 Mar;73(3):284-8. Epub 2005 Oct 20.
In vitro determination of the contraceptive spermicidal activity of a composite
extract of Achyranthes aspera and Stephania hernandifolia on human semen.
Paul D, Bera S, Jana D, Maiti R, Ghosh D.
Reproductive Endocrinology and Family Welfare Research Unit, Department of Human
Physiology with Community Health, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, West Bengal
721 102, India.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a 50% ethanolic extract of the leaf of
Stephania hernandifolia and the root of Achyranthes aspera on sperm motility and
function in a ratio of 1:3 by weight at different concentrations. RESULTS:
Concentration of 0.08 g/mL of the extract affected the motility, and at a
concentration of 0.16 g/mL, the sperm motility was reduced to 20% immediately
(within 20 s). At a concentration of 0.32 g/mL, this composite extract showed
the most promising results by complete sperm immobilization within 2 min after
the application of the extract. The effects were spermicidal but not
spermiostatic as sperm immobilization effect was found to be irreversible. Sperm
viability was decreased significantly and was found to be nonviable after 30 min
when treated with the composite extract at a concentration of 0.32 g/mL. The
hypo-osmotic swelling of these sperm was reduced significantly at this highest
concentration, indicating that the crude extract may probably cause injury to
the sperm plasma membrane. A low concentration of 0.04 g/mL is ineffective.
CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that this composite plant extract possesses
potential contraceptive spermicidal activity in vitro.
PMID: 16472572 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
5: Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2006 Mar;20(3):263-73. Epub 2005 Jun 14.
Effect of Achyranthes aspera on the immunity and survival of Labeo rohita
infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.
Vasudeva Rao Y, Das BK, Jyotyrmayee P, Chakrabarti R.
Aqua Research Lab, Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007,
Achyranthes aspera seed was incorporated in the diets (at 0.01%, 0.1% and 0.5%)
of Labeo rohita, rohu fingerlings (3.0+/-0.4 g). After 2 weeks, the fish were
immunized with heat-killed Aeromonas hydrophila, and after a further 2 weeks the
rohu were experimentally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila (ATCC 49140). After
7 days blood and serum were sampled to determine superoxide anion production,
bactericidal activity, lysozyme, serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum
glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate
transaminase (SGPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Superoxide anion production,
serum bactericidal activity, lysozyme, ALP, serum protein, albumin:globulin
ratio (A/G) were enhanced in Achyranthes treated groups compared to the control
group. SGOT and SGPT levels were elevated in control group, but in Achyranthes
treated groups the levels were similar to the uninfected-control group. Higher
cumulative mortalities were observed in the control group (77%) up to day-9
after infection. This gradually decreased with increasing dose of Achyranthes,
66% mortality in 0.01% group, 57% mortality in 0.1% group and 28% mortality in
0.5% group. These results indicate that Achyranthes aspera stimulates immunity
and increases resistance to infection in L. rohita.
PMID: 15961319 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
6: Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2005 Apr;18(4):327-34.
Stimulation of immunity in Indian major carp Catla catla with herbal feed
Rao Y V, Chakrabarti R.
Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India.
Catla catla, catla (150 +/- 20 g) were fed a diet containing seed of Achyranthes
aspera (0.5%) and control diet without A. aspera for four weeks prior to and
after ip injection with chicken erythrocytes. Fish were sampled for four
consecutive weeks after immunization. Hemagglutination antibody titers were
significantly higher in the test group of fishes compared with the control
group. Serum globulin levels were significantly (P(t-test) < 0.05) higher in the
test group than control group on days 14 and 21. Anti-trypsin activity due to
total serum protease inhibitors and alpha1-antiprotease was also significantly
(P(t-test) < 0.05) higher in the test group of fishes than the control. RNA/DNA
ratio of spleen and kidney was also significantly (P(t-test) < 0.05) higher in
test group than the control group. All these results confirm that A. aspera
enhances the immunity of catla.
PMID: 15561562 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
7: Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Nov;40(11):1307-9.
Impact of feeding ethanolic extracts of Achyranthes aspera Linn. on reproductive
functions in male rats.
Sandhyakumary K, Boby RG, Indira M.
Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom,
Thiruvananthapuram 695 581, India.
Feeding 50% ethanolic extract of A. aspera to male rats resulted in reduced
sperm counts, weight of epididymis, serum level of testosterone and testicular
activity of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, while motility of the sperm and
activity of the HMG CoA reductase were not affected. Cholesterol level in the
testis, incorporation of labelled acetate into cholesterol, 17-ketosteroids in
urine and hepatic and fecal bile acids were increased. The results suggest that
ethanolic extract of A. aspera caused reproductive toxicity in male rats and the
action may be by suppressing the synthesis of androgen.
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
PMID: 13677636 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
8: Vet Hum Toxicol. 2003 Aug;45(4):212-3.
Cardiac toxicity caused by Achyranthes aspera.
Han ST, Un CC.
Department of Emergency Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
A 57-y-old man took over 1000 ml of a decoction made from Acyranthes aspera and
was found unconscious in his bathroom. Hypotension and bradycardia were noted.
The patient recovered 4 d later after dopamine and supportive care. There was no
further cardiac abnormalities noted in serial cardiac examinations. We suggest
that Achyranthes aspera causes a dose-related transient cardiovascular toxicity.
PMID: 12882494 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
9: Phytother Res. 2003 Jan;17(1):77-9.
Effect of alcohol extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn. on acute and subacute
Vetrichelvan T, Jegadeesan M.
Adhiparasakthi College of Pharmacy, Melmaruvathur-603 319, Tamil Nadu, India.
The antiinflammatory activity of an alcohol extract of Achyranthes aspera was
tested on carrageenin-induced hind paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma models
in albino male rats. The paw volume was measured plethysmometrically at 0, 1, 2,
3, 4 and 5 h. In the subacute model cotton pellet granuloma was produced by
implantation of 50 +/- 1 mg sterile cotton in the axilla under ether
anaesthesia. The animals were fed with an alcohol extract at various dose levels
(125, 250, 375 and 500 mg/kg). Diclofenac sodium was used as a standard drug.
The alcohol extract (375 and 500 mg/kg) showed the maximum inhibition of oedema
of 65.38% and 72.37% at the end of 3 h with carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema,
respectively. Using a chronic test, the extract exhibited a 40.03% and 45.32%
reduction in granuloma weight. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PMID: 12557252 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
10: Phytomedicine. 2002 Jul;9(5):433-7.
Preliminary evaluation of anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of S.
lappa, A. speciosa and A. aspera.
Gokhale AB, Damre AS, Kulkami KR, Saraf MN.
Department of Pharmacology, Bombay College of Pharmacy, Kalina, Mumbai, India.
Saussurea lappa, Argyreia speciosa and Achyranthes aspera are well known Indian
medicinal plants used in the indigenous systems of medicine for the treatment of
inflammatory conditions. The ethanolic extracts of the plants at the doses of
50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. were screened for their effect on acute and chronic
inflammation induced in mice and rats. S. lappa and A. speciosa were found to
significantly inhibit paw edema induced by carrageenan and Freund's complete
adjuvant and to prevent accumulation of inflammatory cells in
carrageenan-induced peritonitis at doses of 50-200 mg/kg. A. aspera inhibited
these inflammatory responses at doses of 100-200 mg/kg. The studies reveal that
the ethanolic extracts of S. lappa, A. speciosa and A. aspera possess
anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity and support the rationale behind
the traditional use of these plants in inflammatory conditions.
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
PMID: 12222664 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
11: Cancer Lett. 2002 Mar 8;177(1):1-5.
Cancer chemopreventive activity of Achyranthes aspera leaves on Epstein-Barr
virus activation and two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis.
Chakraborty A, Brantner A, Mukainaka T, Nobukuni Y, Kuchide M, Konoshima T,
Tokuda H, Nishino H.
Institute of Pharmacognosy, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 4/I, A-8010
Achyranthes aspera leaves have been assessed for chemopreventive activity. The
MeOH extract, alkaloid, non-alkaloid and saponin fractions exhibited significant
inhibitory effects (concentration 100 microg) on the Epstein-Barr virus early
antigen activation induced by the tumor promotor
12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in Raji cells. In this in vitro assay the
non-alkaloid fraction containing mainly non-polar compounds showed the most
significant inhibitory activity (96.9%; 60% viability). In the in vivo two-stage
mouse skin carcinogenesis test the total methanolic extract possessed a
pronounced anticarcinogenic effect (76%). The present study suggests that A.
aspera leaf extract and the non-alkaloid fraction are valuable antitumor
promotors in carcinogenesis.
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
PMID: 11809524 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
12: J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Aug;71(3):527-32.
Achyranthes aspera elevates thyroid hormone levels and decreases hepatic lipid
peroxidation in male rats.
Tahiliani P, Kar A.
Thyroid Research Unit, School of Life Sciences, Devi Ahilya University, Vigyan
Bhawan, Khandwa Road, Madhya Pradesh 452 017, Indore, India.
A study was made to evaluate the role of Achyranthes aspera on the changes in
serum thyroid hormone concentrations and glucose levels in male rats. An attempt
was also made to establish the relationship between hepatic lipid peroxidation
and extract induced changes in thyroid hormone concentration, if any. Adult male
Wistar rats were orally administered with the aqueous leaf extract of
Achyranthes aspera at a dose of 200 mg/kg b. wt./day for 7 days. The effects of
the extract on body weight, hepatic protein content, lipid peroxidation (LPO),
superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and on serum
triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and glucose levels were evaluated. The
extract exhibited significant prothyroidic activity as it enhanced the levels of
both the thyroid hormones along with an increase in serum glucose concentration,
body weight and hepatic protein content. On the other hand, it decreased hepatic
LPO without altering the activities of the two antioxidant enzymes, SOD and CAT
significantly, suggesting a direct free radical scavenging activity of the
extract. It appears that the Achyranthes aspera leaf extract is both
prothyroidic and antiperoxidative in nature.
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
PMID: 10940593 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
13: J Ethnopharmacol. 1991 Jan;31(1):49-57.
Evaluation of the hypoglycaemic effect of Achyranthes aspera in normal and
Akhtar MS, Iqbal J.
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture,
Blood glucose levels of normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits were determined
after oral administration of various doses of Achyranthes aspera powdered whole
plant and certain aqueous and methanolic extracts. Oral administration of 2, 3
and 4 g/kg of A. aspera powder produced a significant dose-related hypoglycaemic
effect in normal as well as in diabetic rabbits. The water and methanol extracts
also decreased blood glucose levels in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits. A
7-day acute toxicity study in rabbits did not reveal any adverse or side effects
of this folk medicine at dosages up to 8 g/kg orally. It is possible that the
plant could act by providing certain necessary elements like calcium, zinc,
magnesium, manganese and copper to the beta-cells.
PMID: 2030593 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
14: Planta Med. 1986 Jun;(3):231-3.
Contraceptive and hormonal properties of Achyranthes aspera in rats and
Wadhwa V, Singh MM, Gupta DN, Singh C, Kamboj VP.
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
PMID: 3529148 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
15: J Ethnopharmacol. 1982 Sep;6(2):191-226.
Research on plants for fertility regulation in India.
Kamboj VP, Dhawan BN.
PIP: This present review of Indian plants investigated for fertility regulation
includes published literature of the country and unpublished data of the Central
Drug Research Institute (CDRI), located in Lucknow, India. Publications without
supportive experimental data have not been included. It is evident from the
data presented in the tables that most of the investigators have failed to
include the valuable information on the time and place of collection and proper
botanical authentication, if conducted, in their publications. The plants
evaluated at the Institute do contain this information and their herbaria sheets
are available at CDRI. The plants, with part used, type of extract, isolated
compound/chromatographic fraction, dose, route and schedule of administration
with animal used, and percentage activity are given in tables. The plants are
classified according to their activity profile and presented accordingly.
Plants for which the hormonal profile or toxicity data have been reported are
dealt with under each type of activity. Most of the investigators did not
develop the active plants, probably because of inconsistent results in repeat
tests or lack of facilities. Major attention has been devoted to identifying
plants with interceptive properties. The schedules used are more or less
uniform and acceptable. On the basis of preliminary toxicity data,
extracts/compounds from "Aristolochia indica," "Artemisia scoparia," "Hibiscus
rosa sinensis," "Laccardia lacca," and "Plumbago zeylanica" exclude themselves
from consideration for follow-up. Wherever done, the hormonal profiles revealed
estrogenic activity in active extracts/fractions/compounds from "Artabotrys
odoratissimus," "Datura quercifolia," "Daucus carota," "Embelia ribes,"
"Hibiscus rosa sinensis," "Pueraria tuberosa" and "Tabernaemontana heyneana."
Thus they are not ideal for follow-up. Some more plants can be excluded
initially because of low activity or equivocal reports on activity. The
remaining plants, in order of priority, for follow-up should be "Ensete
superbum," "Achyranthes aspera," "Lygodium flexosum," "Sapindus trifoliatus,"
"Polygonum hydropiper," and "Abrus precatorius." The next priority could be
given to plants with weak estrogenicity. The CDRI has observed 100%
anti-implantation activity by 4 plants in hamsters. These should be the
potential plants for development since they appear to interfere with
progesterone synthesis or utilization.
PMID: 6752588 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
16: Indian J Exp Biol. 1977 Oct;15(10):856-8.
Abortifacient principle of Achyranthes aspera Linn.
Pakrashi A, Bhattacharya N.
PIP: Achyranthes apsera is an abundant indigenous herb in India. Extracts of
the whole plant had shown an abortifacient effect in mice. Maximal activity was
in the benzene extract which was tested. The drug, in olive oil, was given
orally to rabbits in doses of 50 mg/kg of body weight on the 8th day postcoitum.
Laparotomy was done on the 11th day. No implantation sites were found.
However, ovaries contained prominent corpus luteum, indicating that the drug had
prevented pregnancy. In rats, the drug was given orally as a single dose of 50
mg/kg of body weight on the 6th or 7th day after mating. No effect was
observed. In mice the drug was given at a single dose of either 10, 15, 25, or
50 mg/kg of body weight. For toxicity tests in mice, a single dose of 1000
mg/kg of body weight was given. After 1 month animals were autopsied and the
organs examined. The drug was nontoxic. For a chronic toxicity test 75 mg/kg
of body weight was given every 21 days. After 6 months of drug treatment, blood
and tissue samples were examined. No toxic effects were observed. For a
teratogenic study, 15 mated female mice were fed 10 or 25 mg/kg of body weight
on Day 6 of gestation. 3 generations of offspring showed no malformations. In
mice, abortifacient effects were noted with a maximum activity at 50 mg/kg of
body weight. The drug showed no estrogenic, antiestrogenic, or androgenic
effects in mice. Progesterone or pituitary extract given along with the drug
did not prevent abortions in mice. The drug was species-specific in that no
abortifacient effect was found in rats.
PMID: 606650 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
17: J Reprod Fertil. 1975 Apr;43(1):127-8.
Effect of chromatographic fractions of the plant Achyranthes aspera Linn. On
fertility in female albino mice.
Pakrashi A, Mookerji N, Basak B.
PMID: 1127628 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
18: Indian J Med Res. 1972 Mar;60(3):462-71.
Cardiac stimulant activity of the saponin of Achyranthes aspera (Linn).
Gupta SS, Bhagwat AW, Ram AK.
PMID: 4144812 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
19: Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1971 Jul;15(3):107-10.
Effect of the saponin of Achyranthes aspera on the phosphorylase activity of rat
Ram AK, Bhagwat AW, Gupta SS.
PMID: 5137668 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
20: Lepr Rev. 1966 Apr;37(2):115-20.
Role of an indigenous drug (Achyranthes aspera) in the management of reactions
in leprosy: preliminary observations.
Ojha D, Tripathi SN, Singh G.
PMID: 5930239 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
21: Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1965 Oct;9(4):185-8.
Pharmacological study of Achyranthes aspera Linn. A preliminary report.
Gambhir SS, Sanyal AK, Chowdhury NK.
PMID: 5871780 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
22: J Sci Ind Res (C). 1961 Aug;20C:246-51.
Pharmacognostical studies on Achyranthes aspera Linn.
PRASAD S, BHATTACHARYA IC.
PMID: 14038485 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]